Sulphur-collecting workers walking on the edge of hell in the Ijen volcano

For centuries, in the east of Java Island, Indonesia, the magnificent scenery of Ijen has attracted a steady stream of visitors. However, in recent years, the sulphonators on the volcano have become a controversial tourism “landscape”. Sunarto is one of the Sulphur-collecting workers on Ijen volcano and was born in the nearby village of Plambang. Sunarto lives with his family now, including his son Marko. Sunarto earns $10 a day on average through mining.

Ibu Khairiah works in the rice fields of the Pongunwangi area. The volcanic soil here is very fertile and suitable for agriculture.

The Ba Nuowang area is dotted with green rice fields.

The miners smashed the sulphur in the crater and then placed it in a wicker basket back to the hill foot.

A miner’s headlight penetrated the dark and thick volcanic gases. The miners usually start work at night to prevent the temperature from rising too high to be tolerated after the sun rises.